# UKHAS Wiki

UK High Altitude Society

## Part 1 - Test Circuit and Test Code

### Introduction

Getting your Arduino to transmit via the radio initially may seem daunting but its actually pretty simple. Please freely substitute the word “Arduino” for any micro-controller you wish to use. The example below works for 5V and 3.3V micro-controllers.

This may be the first bit of code you've come across with regards to creating a tracker. There is always the temptation to cut and paste it and away you go. And in isolation this may work. However should you then cut and paste further code without understanding what is going you will end up with an unworkable mess and something that is next to impossible for us to assist you with. Pretty please take the time to work out what the code below is doing, redo it yourself, break it, fix it most importantly understand it.

In this short tutorial I’ll give a step by step instructions on connecting a Radiometrix NTX2B to an Arduino and getting it to shift its transmission between two frequencies slightly giving two tones. In the second part I’ll demonstrate how to control this and use the circuit to transmit data at 50 or 300 baud using RTTY. Finally we will demonstrate using the circuit to generate DominoEX.

The theory is as follows: you adjust the voltage on the NTX2B's TXD pin which adjusts its transmission frequency slightly. The difference in this frequency is called the shift. By doing this in a controlled fashion you can transmit 1's and 0's and therefore data. There are a number of methods to adjusting the voltage, connecting the TXD to a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)on the Arduino, using a DAC or using a voltage divider.

The NTX2B is a FM (Frequency Modulation) module intended to have a voltage applied to the TXD pin of between 0 and 3 volts. This voltage range changes the output frequency of the module by up to 6KHz. This means for each 1Hz change in frequency you need to change the voltage by 0.0005v (3 divided 6000) so to get a shift of 500hz you need to toggle the voltage applied to the TXD pin by 500×0.0005=0.25v.

To get this voltage shift we are going to use PWM . See this article for more information on PWM : [http://arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/PWM|Arduino PWM Tutorial]]. The resolution of this is 8 bits which means the Arduino can change the voltage by 256 (2^8) steps. This means the maximum voltage of 5V can be broken into 5/256 steps or 0.0195v per step. The maximum input of the NTX2B is 3V therefore there is no point applying voltages of greater than 3V. As a decimal this means 3/5* 256 = 153.

In theory the standard shift of 425Hz equates to a 0.2125/0.0195 = 11, however in reality on an NTX2B a value of 10 gave a perfect 425Hz shift. Don’t get too hung up on getting the exact shift, any shift from 350-500Hz is fine.

### Items Required

Arduino or similar microcontroller

### Circuit Diagram

Connect Arduino 5V to the NTX2B VCC pin 5 Connect Arduino 5V to the NTX2B EN pin 4 Connect Arduino GND to the NTX2B GND pin 6 Connect Arduino pin 9 to the NTX2B TXD pin 7

Once done it should look like this (you don’t need an antenna in at this point) :

### The Code

The code is similar to the Fade example built into Arduino (File→Examples→03.Analogue→Fade)

```/*
Demo Code to Drive NTX2B via PWM

Written by Anthony Stirk M0UPU

This example code is in the public domain.
*/

void setup() {
}

void loop() {
delay(500);
delay(500);
}
void setPwmFrequency(int pin, int divisor) {
byte mode;
if(pin == 5 || pin == 6 || pin == 9 || pin == 10) {
switch(divisor) {
case 1:
mode = 0x01;
break;
case 8:
mode = 0x02;
break;
case 64:
mode = 0x03;
break;
case 256:
mode = 0x04;
break;
case 1024:
mode = 0x05;
break;
default:
return;
}

if(pin == 5 || pin == 6) {
TCCR0B = TCCR0B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
else {
TCCR1B = TCCR1B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
}
else if(pin == 3 || pin == 11) {
switch(divisor) {
case 1:
mode = 0x01;
break;
case 8:
mode = 0x02;
break;
case 32:
mode = 0x03;
break;
case 64:
mode = 0x04;
break;
case 128:
mode = 0x05;
break;
case 256:
mode = 0x06;
break;
case 1024:
mode = 0x7;
break;
default:
return;
}
TCCR2B = TCCR2B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
}```

Excluding the setPwmFrequency procedure (all this does is set the PWM speed as quick as it will go to made the voltage presented to the NTX2B PWM pin as more “analogue”) this code simply opens pin 9. It then alternates the voltage on this pin by 10 every 1/2 second. You can plug an LED into pin 9 to see what its doing.

Load this code up to the Arduino.

Ok now take your radio in USB mode and tune it into the frequency of the NTX2B module. You should hear the high and low tones. If you’re using an RTL + SDR# set the frequency to something above the frequency of the module, i.e in this example our NTX2B is transmitting on 434.200Mhz so I’ve set SDR# to 434.500Mhz. You can see a peak on the left of the spectrum analyzer at the top around 434.200Mhz :

If you’re unsure if this is the radio, turn it off. It will disappear. Zoom in the line using the zoom on the right. You may want to increase the resolution in the FFT Display at this point, with a resolution of 262144 you should see some distinct high and low tones separated by about 425hz :

Congratulations you’re transmitting. If you’re ever unsure if your radio is working you should step back to this extremely simple code to check the basic operation.

## Part 2 - RTTY

### Introduction

Once you have the high and low code working we can now take this one step further and turn this into the transmission of data.

Using the circuit discussed in the previous article upload the following code will transmit a short sentence at 50 baud, 7 bits ASCII 2 stop bits. Also the code adds a CRC checksum at the end of the data string.

The data string variable is passed to a procedure called rtty_txtstring which takes care of transmitting the data by breaking it down into characters, then it transmits the individual bits of those characters. The key to getting the baud rate correct is the timing. Theoretically 50 baud should be 1/50th of a second = 20000µS however the Arduino delayMicroseconds command can only do a maximum delay of 16383µS. To get round this we do two delays of 10000µS.

300 baud after some playing seemed to be stable around 3370µS delay ( 300 baud should be 1/300s = 3333µS). You can uncomment the relevant lines out as needed.

### The Code

```/*
Demo Code to Drive NTX2B via PWM

Written by Anthony Stirk M0UPU
RTTY code from Rob Harrison Icarus Project.

http://ukhas.org.uk

This example code is in the public domain.
*/

#include <string.h>
#include <util/crc16.h>

char datastring[80];

void setup() {
}

void loop() {
snprintf(datastring,80,"RTTY TEST BEACON RTTY TEST BEACON"); // Puts the text in the datastring
unsigned int CHECKSUM = gps_CRC16_checksum(datastring); // Calculates the checksum for this datastring
char checksum_str[6];
sprintf(checksum_str, "*%04X\n", CHECKSUM);
strcat(datastring,checksum_str);
rtty_txstring (datastring);
}

void rtty_txstring (char * string) {
/* Simple function to sent a char at a time to
** rtty_txbyte function.
** NB Each char is one byte (8 Bits)
*/

char c;
c = *string++;

while ( c != '\0') {
rtty_txbyte (c);
c = *string++;
}
}
void rtty_txbyte (char c) {
/* Simple function to sent each bit of a char to
** rtty_txbit function.
** NB The bits are sent Least Significant Bit first
**
** All chars should be preceded with a 0 and
** proceed with a 1. 0 = Start bit; 1 = Stop bit
**
*/

int i;

rtty_txbit (0); // Start bit

// Send bits for for char LSB first

for (i=0;i<7;i++) { // Change this here 7 or 8 for ASCII-7 / ASCII-8
if (c & 1) rtty_txbit(1);
else rtty_txbit(0);

c = c >> 1;
}
rtty_txbit (1); // Stop bit
rtty_txbit (1); // Stop bit
}

void rtty_txbit (int bit) {
if (bit) {
// high
}
else {
// low
}

// delayMicroseconds(3370); // 300 baud
delayMicroseconds(10000); // For 50 Baud uncomment this and the line below.
delayMicroseconds(10150); // You can't do 20150 it just doesn't work as the
// largest value that will produce an accurate delay is 16383
// See : http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/DelayMicroseconds
}

uint16_t gps_CRC16_checksum (char *string) {
size_t i;
uint16_t crc;
uint8_t c;

crc = 0xFFFF;

// Calculate checksum ignoring the first two \$s
for (i = 2; i < strlen(string); i++) {
c = string[i];
crc = _crc_xmodem_update (crc, c);
}

return crc;
}

void setPwmFrequency(int pin, int divisor) {
byte mode;
if(pin == 5 || pin == 6 || pin == 9 || pin == 10) {
switch(divisor) {
case 1:
mode = 0x01;
break;
case 8:
mode = 0x02;
break;
case 64:
mode = 0x03;
break;
case 256:
mode = 0x04;
break;
case 1024:
mode = 0x05;
break;
default:
return;
}

if(pin == 5 || pin == 6) {
TCCR0B = TCCR0B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
else {
TCCR1B = TCCR1B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
}
else if(pin == 3 || pin == 11) {
switch(divisor) {
case 1:
mode = 0x01;
break;
case 8:
mode = 0x02;
break;
case 32:
mode = 0x03;
break;
case 64:
mode = 0x04;
break;
case 128:
mode = 0x05;
break;
case 256:
mode = 0x06;
break;
case 1024:
mode = 0x7;
break;
default:
return;
}
TCCR2B = TCCR2B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
}```

Load this up and you should hear the distinctive warble of RTTY coming out of your radio. Route this audio into DL-FLDIGI and you should see the bars in the center of the waterfall like this :

In DL-FLDIGI click Op Mode → RTTY →Custom. Set carrier shift to 425, baud to 50, 7 bits per character, no parity and 2 stop bits. If everything is ok you should see DL-FLDIGI decoding the RTTY.

## Part 3 - DominoEX

### Introduction

RTTY as discussed in Part 2 of this article uses two tones a high and a low tone to convey the data. Whilst simple its performance can degrade as the signal gets weaker and with no error correction you may get packets with errors in them. To mitigate a little against this there is a more robust mode called DominoEX.

Note : This example should work with the original NTX2 but you may get significant drift as the temperature changes which will change the tone spacing and mean this doesn't work . The NTX2B with its TCXO is more suitable.

DominoEX is an MFSK (Multiple frequency-shift keying) mode that uses 18 tones to transmit data, although there is no error correction built in the performance of DominoEX is such that its rarely needed. If you can hear the signal generally you can decode it. For a more in depth description please visit this page : http://www.qsl.net/zl1bpu/MFSK/DEX.htm

The key to DominoEX working is the distance between the tones has to be very precise. For DominoEX16 the tone spacing has to be 15.625Hz. As you saw before our 8 bit Arduino doesn't have the resolution to do this natively however we can increase the resolution of the Arduino by inserting a resistor between the Arduino pin 9 and the NTX2B TXD pin. The TXD pin has an internal 100k resistor so you’re making a voltage divider.

Using this method a 175k resistor means each PWM step gives the voltage needed to step the frequency up by the required amount. You may need to play with this to get the correct value. Here I'm using a Seven Decade Programmable resistor to test the values :

### The Code

```/*
Demo Code to Drive NTX2B via PWM
DominoEX
Written by Anthony Stirk M0UPU
This example code is in the public domain.
*/

unsigned char varicode[][3] = {
/* Primary alphabet */
{ 1,15, 9}, { 1,15,10}, { 1,15,11}, { 1,15,12}, { 1,15,13}, { 1,15,14}, { 1,15,15}, { 2, 8, 8},
{ 2,12, 0}, { 2, 8, 9}, { 2, 8,10}, { 2, 8,11}, { 2, 8,12}, { 2,13, 0}, { 2, 8,13}, { 2, 8,14},
{ 2, 8,15}, { 2, 9, 8}, { 2, 9, 9}, { 2, 9,10}, { 2, 9,11}, { 2, 9,12}, { 2, 9,13}, { 2, 9,14},
{ 2, 9,15}, { 2,10, 8}, { 2,10, 9}, { 2,10,10}, { 2,10,11}, { 2,10,12}, { 2,10,13}, { 2,10,14},
{ 0, 0, 0}, { 7,11, 0}, { 0, 8,14}, { 0,10,11}, { 0, 9,10}, { 0, 9, 9}, { 0, 8,15}, { 7,10, 0},
{ 0, 8,12}, { 0, 8,11}, { 0, 9,13}, { 0, 8, 8}, { 2,11, 0}, { 7,14, 0}, { 7,13, 0}, { 0, 8, 9},
{ 3,15, 0}, { 4,10, 0}, { 4,15, 0}, { 5, 9, 0}, { 6, 8, 0}, { 5,12, 0}, { 5,14, 0}, { 6,12, 0},
{ 6,11, 0}, { 6,14, 0}, { 0, 8,10}, { 0, 8,13}, { 0,10, 8}, { 7,15, 0}, { 0, 9,15}, { 7,12, 0},
{ 0, 9, 8}, { 3, 9, 0}, { 4,14, 0}, { 3,12, 0}, { 3,14, 0}, { 3, 8, 0}, { 4,12, 0}, { 5, 8, 0},
{ 5,10, 0}, { 3,10, 0}, { 7, 8, 0}, { 6,10, 0}, { 4,11, 0}, { 4, 8, 0}, { 4,13, 0}, { 3,11, 0},
{ 4, 9, 0}, { 6,15, 0}, { 3,13, 0}, { 2,15, 0}, { 2,14, 0}, { 5,11, 0}, { 6,13, 0}, { 5,13, 0},
{ 5,15, 0}, { 6, 9, 0}, { 7, 9, 0}, { 0,10,14}, { 0,10, 9}, { 0,10,15}, { 0,10,10}, { 0, 9,12},
{ 0, 9,11}, { 4, 0, 0}, { 1,11, 0}, { 0,12, 0}, { 0,11, 0}, { 1, 0, 0}, { 0,15, 0}, { 1, 9, 0},
{ 0,10, 0}, { 5, 0, 0}, { 2,10, 0}, { 1,14, 0}, { 0, 9, 0}, { 0,14, 0}, { 6, 0, 0}, { 3, 0, 0},
{ 1, 8, 0}, { 2, 8, 0}, { 7, 0, 0}, { 0, 8, 0}, { 2, 0, 0}, { 0,13, 0}, { 1,13, 0}, { 1,12, 0},
{ 1,15, 0}, { 1,10, 0}, { 2, 9, 0}, { 0,10,12}, { 0, 9,14}, { 0,10,12}, { 0,11, 8}, { 2,10,15},
{ 2,11, 8}, { 2,11, 9}, { 2,11,10}, { 2,11,11}, { 2,11,12}, { 2,11,13}, { 2,11,14}, { 2,11,15},
{ 2,12, 8}, { 2,12, 9}, { 2,12,10}, { 2,12,11}, { 2,12,12}, { 2,12,13}, { 2,12,14}, { 2,12,15},
{ 2,13, 8}, { 2,13, 9}, { 2,13,10}, { 2,13,11}, { 2,13,12}, { 2,13,13}, { 2,13,14}, { 2,13,15},
{ 2,14, 8}, { 2,14, 9}, { 2,14,10}, { 2,14,11}, { 2,14,12}, { 2,14,13}, { 2,14,14}, { 2,14,15},
{ 0,11, 9}, { 0,11,10}, { 0,11,11}, { 0,11,12}, { 0,11,13}, { 0,11,14}, { 0,11,15}, { 0,12, 8},
{ 0,12, 9}, { 0,12,10}, { 0,12,11}, { 0,12,12}, { 0,12,13}, { 0,12,14}, { 0,12,15}, { 0,13, 8},
{ 0,13, 9}, { 0,13,10}, { 0,13,11}, { 0,13,12}, { 0,13,13}, { 0,13,14}, { 0,13,15}, { 0,14, 8},
{ 0,14, 9}, { 0,14,10}, { 0,14,11}, { 0,14,12}, { 0,14,13}, { 0,14,14}, { 0,14,15}, { 0,15, 8},
{ 0,15, 9}, { 0,15,10}, { 0,15,11}, { 0,15,12}, { 0,15,13}, { 0,15,14}, { 0,15,15}, { 1, 8, 8},
{ 1, 8, 9}, { 1, 8,10}, { 1, 8,11}, { 1, 8,12}, { 1, 8,13}, { 1, 8,14}, { 1, 8,15}, { 1, 9, 8},
{ 1, 9, 9}, { 1, 9,10}, { 1, 9,11}, { 1, 9,12}, { 1, 9,13}, { 1, 9,14}, { 1, 9,15}, { 1,10, 8},
{ 1,10, 9}, { 1,10,10}, { 1,10,11}, { 1,10,12}, { 1,10,13}, { 1,10,14}, { 1,10,15}, { 1,11, 8},
{ 1,11, 9}, { 1,11,10}, { 1,11,11}, { 1,11,12}, { 1,11,13}, { 1,11,14}, { 1,11,15}, { 1,12, 8},
{ 1,12, 9}, { 1,12,10}, { 1,12,11}, { 1,12,12}, { 1,12,13}, { 1,12,14}, { 1,12,15}, { 1,13, 8},
{ 1,13, 9}, { 1,13,10}, { 1,13,11}, { 1,13,12}, { 1,13,13}, { 1,13,14}, { 1,13,15}, { 1,14, 8},
{ 1,14, 9}, { 1,14,10}, { 1,14,11}, { 1,14,12}, { 1,14,13}, { 1,14,14}, { 1,14,15}, { 1,15, 8},

/* Secondary alphabet */
{ 6,15, 9}, { 6,15,10}, { 6,15,11}, { 6,15,12}, { 6,15,13}, { 6,15,14}, { 6,15,15}, { 7, 8, 8},
{ 4,10,12}, { 7, 8, 9}, { 7, 8,10}, { 7, 8,11}, { 7, 8,12}, { 4,10,13}, { 7, 8,13}, { 7, 8,14},
{ 7, 8,15}, { 7, 9, 8}, { 7, 9, 9}, { 7, 9,10}, { 7, 9,11}, { 7, 9,12}, { 7, 9,13}, { 7, 9,14},
{ 7, 9,15}, { 7,10, 8}, { 7,10, 9}, { 7,10,10}, { 7,10,11}, { 7,10,12}, { 7,10,13}, { 7,10,14},
{ 3, 8, 8}, { 4,15,11}, { 5, 8,14}, { 5,10,11}, { 5, 9,10}, { 5, 9, 9}, { 5, 8,15}, { 4,15,10},
{ 5, 8,12}, { 5, 8,11}, { 5, 9,13}, { 5, 8, 8}, { 4,10,11}, { 4,15,14}, { 4,15,13}, { 5, 8, 9},
{ 4,11,15}, { 4,12,10}, { 4,12,15}, { 4,13, 9}, { 4,14, 8}, { 4,13,12}, { 4,13,14}, { 4,14,12},
{ 4,14,11}, { 4,14,14}, { 5, 8,10}, { 5, 8,13}, { 5,10, 8}, { 4,15,15}, { 5, 9,15}, { 4,15,12},
{ 5, 9, 8}, { 4,11, 9}, { 4,12,14}, { 4,11,12}, { 4,11,14}, { 4,11, 8}, { 4,12,12}, { 4,13, 8},
{ 4,13,10}, { 4,11,10}, { 4,15, 8}, { 4,14,10}, { 4,12,11}, { 4,12, 8}, { 4,12,13}, { 4,11,11},
{ 4,12, 9}, { 4,14,15}, { 4,11,13}, { 4,10,15}, { 4,10,14}, { 4,13,11}, { 4,14,13}, { 4,13,13},
{ 4,13,15}, { 4,14, 9}, { 4,15, 9}, { 5,10,14}, { 5,10, 9}, { 5,10,15}, { 5,10,10}, { 5, 9,12},
{ 5, 9,11}, { 3, 8,12}, { 4, 9,11}, { 4, 8,12}, { 4, 8,11}, { 3, 8, 9}, { 4, 8,15}, { 4, 9, 9},
{ 4, 8,10}, { 3, 8,13}, { 4,10,10}, { 4, 9,14}, { 4, 8, 9}, { 4, 8,14}, { 3, 8,14}, { 3, 8,11},
{ 4, 9, 8}, { 4,10, 8}, { 3, 8,15}, { 4, 8, 8}, { 3, 8,10}, { 4, 8,13}, { 4, 9,13}, { 4, 9,12},
{ 4, 9,15}, { 4, 9,10}, { 4,10, 9}, { 5,10,12}, { 5, 9,14}, { 5,10,12}, { 5,11, 8}, { 7,10,15},
{ 7,11, 8}, { 7,11, 9}, { 7,11,10}, { 7,11,11}, { 7,11,12}, { 7,11,13}, { 7,11,14}, { 7,11,15},
{ 7,12, 8}, { 7,12, 9}, { 7,12,10}, { 7,12,11}, { 7,12,12}, { 7,12,13}, { 7,12,14}, { 7,12,15},
{ 7,13, 8}, { 7,13, 9}, { 7,13,10}, { 7,13,11}, { 7,13,12}, { 7,13,13}, { 7,13,14}, { 7,13,15},
{ 7,14, 8}, { 7,14, 9}, { 7,14,10}, { 7,14,11}, { 7,14,12}, { 7,14,13}, { 7,14,14}, { 7,14,15},
{ 5,11, 9}, { 5,11,10}, { 5,11,11}, { 5,11,12}, { 5,11,13}, { 5,11,14}, { 5,11,15}, { 5,12, 8},
{ 5,12, 9}, { 5,12,10}, { 5,12,11}, { 5,12,12}, { 5,12,13}, { 5,12,14}, { 5,12,15}, { 5,13, 8},
{ 5,13, 9}, { 5,13,10}, { 5,13,11}, { 5,13,12}, { 5,13,13}, { 5,13,14}, { 5,13,15}, { 5,14, 8},
{ 5,14, 9}, { 5,14,10}, { 5,14,11}, { 5,14,12}, { 5,14,13}, { 5,14,14}, { 5,14,15}, { 5,15, 8},
{ 5,15, 9}, { 5,15,10}, { 5,15,11}, { 5,15,12}, { 5,15,13}, { 5,15,14}, { 5,15,15}, { 6, 8, 8},
{ 6, 8, 9}, { 6, 8,10}, { 6, 8,11}, { 6, 8,12}, { 6, 8,13}, { 6, 8,14}, { 6, 8,15}, { 6, 9, 8},
{ 6, 9, 9}, { 6, 9,10}, { 6, 9,11}, { 6, 9,12}, { 6, 9,13}, { 6, 9,14}, { 6, 9,15}, { 6,10, 8},
{ 6,10, 9}, { 6,10,10}, { 6,10,11}, { 6,10,12}, { 6,10,13}, { 6,10,14}, { 6,10,15}, { 6,11, 8},
{ 6,11, 9}, { 6,11,10}, { 6,11,11}, { 6,11,12}, { 6,11,13}, { 6,11,14}, { 6,11,15}, { 6,12, 8},
{ 6,12, 9}, { 6,12,10}, { 6,12,11}, { 6,12,12}, { 6,12,13}, { 6,12,14}, { 6,12,15}, { 6,13, 8},
{ 6,13, 9}, { 6,13,10}, { 6,13,11}, { 6,13,12}, { 6,13,13}, { 6,13,14}, { 6,13,15}, { 6,14, 8},
{ 6,14, 9}, { 6,14,10}, { 6,14,11}, { 6,14,12}, { 6,14,13}, { 6,14,14}, { 6,14,15}, { 6,15, 8},
};
uint8_t _sym = 0;

void setup() {
}

// the loop routine runs over and over again forever:
void loop() {
dominoex_string("M0UPU DOMINOEX TEST\n");
}

void dominoex_txsym(uint8_t sym) {
_sym = (_sym + 2 + sym) % 18;
delay(64);
}

void dominoex_txchar(uint16_t vcode) {
uint8_t i, c;

for(i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
c = varicode[vcode][i];
if(i && !(c & 0x8)) break;
dominoex_txsym(c);
}
}

void dominoex_string(char *s) {
for(; *s; s++) dominoex_txchar(*s);
}

void setPwmFrequency(int pin, int divisor) {
byte mode;
if(pin == 5 || pin == 6 || pin == 9 || pin == 10) {
switch(divisor) {
case 1:
mode = 0x01;
break;
case 8:
mode = 0x02;
break;
case 64:
mode = 0x03;
break;
case 256:
mode = 0x04;
break;
case 1024:
mode = 0x05;
break;
default:
return;
}

if(pin == 5 || pin == 6) {
TCCR0B = TCCR0B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
else {
TCCR1B = TCCR1B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
}
else if(pin == 3 || pin == 11) {
switch(divisor) {
case 1:
mode = 0x01;
break;
case 8:
mode = 0x02;
break;
case 32:
mode = 0x03;
break;
case 64:
mode = 0x04;
break;
case 128:
mode = 0x05;
break;
case 256:
mode = 0x06;
break;
case 1024:
mode = 0x7;
break;
default:
return;
}
TCCR2B = TCCR2B & 0b11111000 | mode;
}
}```

Viewed in DL-FLDIGI (Click Op Mode → DominoEX → DominoEX16)

You can adjust the code to do DominoEX22 by amending the delay line from 64 ( 1/Baud rate so for DominoEX16 = 0.064s, DominoEX22 = 1/21.533 = 0.0464) to 46 and adjusting the resistor to ~ 100k.

## Acknowledgements

Thanks to Rob Harrison for the original RTTY Code Article authored by Anthony Stirk M0UPU Additional contributions by Keval, lz1dev, Costyn, Jcoxon, Daveake and fsphil.

Should you have any questions with this please come chat to us on IRC.